Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The model that I found the most effective for instruction is guided discovery because of its many benefits in the classroom. In the book (2012) Learning Teaching Research-Based Methods, it said, Ã¢â¬Å"We know from our own experiences that we are more motivated and learn more when the instruction involves us in learning, and research into student learning supports thing contention. Students learn more and retain information longer when they are put in active roles than they do when passively receiving information from others.Ã¢â¬ This quote leads me to believe that even research agrees that discovery learning is one of the most effective instructional models because it places the learners as active participants. Discovery learning actively engages students in the learning process. This means that the student is participating with the knowledge as they interact with authentic learning experiences. In addition, this instructional model is effective because students pay more attention to the information by becoming more motivated by curiosity. Through this model, they become curious and motivated because they are active participants in learning things that relate to their lives. Another reason why I prefer it more than the other instructional model is that the students have to use higher order thinking instead of simply recalling the information from their short-term memory. Discovery learning also creates active involvement, active involvement, which forces them to construct aShow MoreRelated Teaching Elementary School Science Essay1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeaching Elementary School Science The National Science Education Standards have set the standards for teaching science. Under Program standard B the standards discuss the best ways children learn science. Program standard B states Ã ¬ the program of study in the science should be developmentally appropriate, interesting and relevant to students lives: emphasize student understanding through inquiry,, and be connected with other school subjects.Ã ® This sums up what teachers need to be doing un theirRead MoreInstructional Strategies For Students With Intellectual Disabilities771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstrategies, most of which are chosen through trial and error. The answer to this final research sub-question was well-versed specifically in theme one: desire for knowledge and theme two: desire for support and guidance. The special education teachers concurred that iPads are a powerful force for enhancing the teaching and learning process for elementary learners with intellectual disabilities. Abby said, Ã¢â¬Å"When iPads are properly used as an essential part of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s educational approach, I believeRead More Different Teaching Styles in Physical Education Essay example1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesphysical education class the best way to judge the quality of teaching is translated into the amount of fun the class is having. Certain teaching styles will work best in this environment. From the book The Spectrum of teaching styles, From Command to Discovery, written by Muska Mosston, he explains that there are a variety of teaching styles. These styles are all a part of the Spectrum of Learning. The spectrum of learning is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the framework for teaching where the term teaching style was selectedRead MoreConstructivist Theory8093 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesfollowing the instructions for building a model airplane. In both cases, the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. However, constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning, or learning by doing. Constructionist learning is inspired by constructivist theories that learners actively construct mental models and theories of the world around them. Constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectivelyRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Efl Learners Essay1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof new words by writing down on papers will help in learning vocabulary. Some feel easier to put new words into sentences and learn vocabulary by chunk of words or make up their own story containing of all new words, others feel more effective when learning new vocabulary through the contexts . Besides, students at different level of maturity also have different learning styles. For instance, children are often interested in physical and visual activities. Read MoreOnline Discussion Of Online Education1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction While attending the 2011 Central Division APA conference, I found myself engaged in several casual discussions with colleagues. If it was mentioned that I was going to be taking part in the Committee for Computers and PhilosophyÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of online education in philosophy, there would sometimes come a rather curious moment in the conversation. I began to think of it as the Ã¢â¬Å"microwave question moment.Ã¢â¬ Many years ago, when microwave ovens first were advertised, there was a rather cleverRead MoreMy Personality And Learning Abilities1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgeneralized somewhat false ideas about who we are or how we think we function. Trying to get a better insight about myself, I took several interpersonal surveys along with questionnaires that had many evolutional properties. Some I found too close to spot on, others not so much, and I am not really sure how I feel about the outcome. The first thing to be uncovered was that I am considered more of an auditory learner over the other types listed. Ã¢â¬Å"Auditory learner, you probably hum or talk to yourselfRead More The Montessori Method Essay2399 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesthe special environment prepared?in our schools, the children themselves found a sentence that expresses their inner need, Help me to help myself. ? (Standing, 1957). The ?prepared environment?, according to Montessori, consists of clean, bright, multi-sensory stimulating materials that are engaging for the child and that are placed in at their level so they can be accessed freely. There is a concentration on ?discovery moments?, defined as when a child learns new information through personalRead MoreThe Effect Of Practical Work On Students Performance9732 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesNGÃ¢â¬â¢ETHE REG. No. E83/20087/2012 A RESEARCH THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULFILLMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY OF KENYATTA UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2014 DECLARATION I declare that this research thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university/ institution for consideration. This research thesis has been completed by referenced sources duly acknowledged. Where text, data (includingRead MoreReflection Of The Task Conducted By Me As A Group Member During Completion Of My Coursework3562 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesresponses as well as reflects trait composition of the individual. The course work of Ã¢â¬Å"Manager and organisationÃ¢â¬ provided the opportunity to go through educational activities. These activities helped me to discover my self-limitation along with the discovery of gaps between theoritical framework and practical applicability of skills (French et al.2011). Behaviourists have identified human response and learning pattern. The activities have enlightened me regarding my behavioural responses and influences
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ABSTRACT Type 2 Diabetes also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, the most common diabetes, affecting 95% of the 29.1 million Americans or 9.3% of the diabetic population of United States in 2012. This paper aims to provide the gaps in our understanding of the Type 2 Diabetes by examining the functions of the pancreas in controlling the sugar levels in the human body and enhance our ability to distinguish the anatomy of the human pancreas. The author also attempts a better understanding of the function of insulin and glucagon hormones in the pancreatic process. It is hoped that this paper will inform those who do not have the understanding and knowledge about the signs and symptoms, causes, treatments, care and prevention of the Type 2 Diabetes. INTRODUCTION Type 2 Diabetes, unlike people with Type 1 Diabetes are able to make insulin. To enhance our understanding of Type 2 Diabetes, knowing what Diabetes is crucial. When a person has diabetes; the body either does not make enough insulin or cannot use his or her own insulin properly, causing glucose (sugar) to build up in the body. It is the seventh leading cause of death in United States in 2010. In this paper, I provide an overview of the function of pancreas in controlling the sugar level in the human body and the function of insulin and glucagon hormones in the pancreatic process. I also present an anatomy of the human pancreas. Finally, I review the signs and symptoms, causes, treatments,Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Bijal P. Trivedi s The Bypass Cure 911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCureÃ¢â¬ she details the history of gastric bypass surgery, its effect on type 2 diabetes, and the how one doctor is using his understanding of modern gastric bypass applications to save the lif eÃ¢â¬â¢s of his patients. The patient, Nancy Rubio was nearly twice the normal weight of a person her height. Her weight had slowly increased throughout her life, due to her unhealthy diet and having two kids. She eventually developed type two diabetes, which then led to other health issues, such as arthritic knee painRead More Types I and II Diabetes1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslife long battle even with a treatment. An excellent example is diabetes. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed in adulthood. Type 1 diabetes is important but it only affects a small amount of the population mainly adolescence while Type 2 diabetes affects a large portion of the population making it more of a priority. The first step into understanding any disease is to find out how it is caused, its onset of symptomsRead MoreDiabetes : Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is diabetes? Diabetes, also referred by doctors as diabetes mellitus, in simple words meaning people have too much sugar in their blood stream, or in medical terms, high blood glucose (blood sugar). The reason why people have diabetes because peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s insulin production is not enough, or because their body s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or in some cases, both could be the case. Patients with high blood sugar will most likely experience polyuria (frequent urination), they willRead MoreNegatives And Negatives Of Health Educators945 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessurvey questions format should have included incorrect answers to help with the validity of the instrument. The addition of incorrect answers would have challenged the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and help the health educators address topics regarding type 2 diabetes. Another recommendation would be to meet on Tuesdays and Thursdays with sections of the paper complete to help with efficiency. There was the time when the group meets in the past, and the health educators got together unprepared. This oftenRead MoreOutline Of A Speech On Diabetes1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknows someone who has diabetes? B. Background Audience Relevance: Diabetes is a disease that now in days is becoming more common to society because of the lifestyle in which many of us eat and how easy and cheap it is to obtain unhealthy fast food. C. Speaker Credibility: my mom has been a diabetic for about 10 years I have learned a lot from personal experiences, doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ appointments, and research that I have recently done on the diabetes. D. Thesis: Learning about diabetes will give you a betterRead MoreWomen s Prevalence Of Diabetes1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprevalence of diabetes is 3 to 5 times higher in First Nations than in the general populationÃ¢â¬ (Introduction section, para. 1). Gestational diabetes mellitus is just one of the many types of diabetes Aboriginal people are faced with. It is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy; when your body is unable to produce an adequate amount of insulin to cope with fluctuating hormones and a growing baby (Harris, Bhattacharyya, Dyck, Hayward, Toth, 2013). Although gestational diabetes mellitus (GMD)Read MoreThe Environmental And Genetic Factors Affecting Children With Type 2 Diabetes1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited States of America who are suffering with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a rapidly increasing and growing public health issue causing morbidity and premature mortality around the world. The environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of this disease. The increasing population growth, ageing populations, dietary changes, prevalence of obesity, economic development, and physical inactivity is associated with the rise in diabetes. T2D burden will continue to increase worldwideRead MoreDiabetes Care : What School Personnel Need For Know. Learners944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiabetes Care: What School Personnel Need to Know Learners According to Evans and Ficca (2012), within the last forty years, the number of chronic health conditions among school children has risen from 1.8% to 25%. In the United States, more than 215,000 young people under the age of 20 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes (American Association of Diabetes Educators, 2014). School age children typically spend more than one-third of their day in a school setting under the supervision of teachers. ThereforeRead MoreEffective Management of Diabetes976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiabetes is a serious medical condition that can also be a risk factor for the development of many different diseases and conditions including dementia, heart disease, and CVA. Thus, effective management of diabetes is very important. Patient compliance can be difficult to achieve if the person affected with diabetes is not educated about the illness or treatment, has not fully accepted the diagnosis or its severity, will not change habits or believes that the prescribed treatment regime is too difficultRead MoreThis reflective essay will lay emphasis on one of the learning needs I have developed during my two1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswork because it is a more coherent and comprehensible approach to follow when writing a reflective account and is also an easier guide to writing reflections. The learning need I chose to reflect on from my learning plan is having a better understanding of diabetes and the 6 basic medications used in treating the condition since it is a common illness on the ward I am have been allocated on for my first placement. The timescale set for achieving this objective was by the end of my two week placement
Whispered Empire State College Application Essay Samples Secrets Key Pieces of Empire State College Application Essay Samples So tell your very best story in your words, and enable the results take care of. It's very valuable to take writing apart to be able to see just the way that it accomplishes its objectives. By learning how to take things apart and critique, you will also learn to compose the statements better. You'll look closely at the arguments to find out what makes them so convincing. The Truth About Empire State College Application Essay Samples To be effective, you want to think about several facets. Learn precisely what the needs of the prompt are. Today, college application essays have come to be the most influential part of the application approach. Following that, you are going to analyze that content to determine what aspects allow it to be perfect. An excellent essay will demonstrate that you're the type of person who can bounce back and learn from an experience. As you're employing a writer, you may use the spare time to study. Here are a few suggestions on how to use the information we've provided here. To assist you get off to an excellent start, we've put together the following advice and hints. The War Against Empire State College Application Essay Samples DO show your understanding of the college. Your application essay will be able to help you stick out from the remainder of the candidates and get noticed by the admission board. Our academic writers provide top notch assistance at no cost. Our crew of professional academic writers is prepared to deliver top-quality help with. How to Get Started with Empire State College Application Essay Samples? Our favourite essays always took a great deal of time and energy! It's a whole lot of work, but it is going to pay off in the long run. Since I enter Flagstaff, my house, poles start to stand up straight. Using Empire State College Application Essay Samples By means of this degree I have studied a wide selection of distinct subjects, including the one I would love to continue with through Suny Empire. Suny Empire offers considerably more affordable education rates than many different colleges out there. Please note that a few of these college essay examples could possibly be responding to prompts that are no longer being used. Writing the college application essay can be among the most daunting components of applying to college. Summer is the ideal time to start your college essay. The Common Application makes it possible for you to apply to more or less 700 distinct colleges. Who Else Wants to Learn About Empire State College Application Essay Samples? CollegeVine's Essay Editing Program offers you the chance to submit your essay online and get comprehensive edits within 24-48 hours. Dig deep to discover a topic that's meaningful. Brainstorming can help you realize your topic and make it simpler for you to structure it. Don't have somebody else write your essay, nor wait to compose your essay. Following your nomination, you're required to forward an essay. Bridget's essay is extremely strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. Stephen's essay is rather effective. The way you begin your essay is essential to the reception your essay will receive, so this step should take up lots of your essay writing process. The way you start your application essay is vital to how well it'll be received. This section will examine two essays from the examples which were collected above so we are able to pull them apart and inquire into the criteria that result in a fantastic college application essay. If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Empire State College Application Essay Samples So, my purpose is to read all of them and glory this educational establishment. On the other, it's a manner of life. Environmental studies amaze me in various elements, as I'm a nature lover. Attempt to incorporate a narrative of some type, as an example, how you first became interested in this issue, idea or concept. Show how you fit in the campus culture and how you are going to affect the community through specific examples. At suny Empire, the student h as a wide range of study choices that are appealing. Allow it to sit for a couple days untouched. Think about a few recent presidents of america.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Intangible assets are those assets that cannot be seen, in the past it has been difficult to value them since they lacked production cost and their value was not quantifiable. Either way, these assets are ever present in the many organizations, both profit making and non profit making.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Intangible Assets in Finances specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is crucial for intangible assets to be measured since they play a major role in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive sustainability. Also, some scholars believe that these assets are the backbone for a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. That being the case, there is a challenge of valuing them. Companies like CPA/ABVs have been created to specifically measure intangible assets. Examples of these assets include trademarks and copyrights (King Wiley, 2006). There are about four ways of measuring intangible assets, but the one that is commonly used is the d iscounted cash flow method. In this method, intangible assets are valued according to how much money these assets will generate when put in use. This value should include taxes arising from the implementation of the asset, the risks involved, the cost of acquiring the assets, roles played by auxiliary intangible and tangible assets and finally the discount fee. This method is particularly used to measure the value of assets like expertise, computer programmes and franchises. The reason why this method is popular is because it does not require volumes of paper work to figure out the value and also it does not require highly skilled accountants to compute. Also, judging from other methods, this one appears to be more accurate and more focused on the future (King Wiley, 2006). However, since valuing of intangible assets is subjected to biasness, it is of at most important that more than one method be used. Using more than one method will lead to a more believable and a convincing valu e. To give an example, the avoided cost method takes into consideration of what the value of an asset might have been in the past, but it does not include what its value will be in the future. To do that you will need to use the discounted cash flow method (Reilly Schweihs, 2004). The importance of valuing of intangible assets has been rapidly realized by companies all over the world. This is because the methodologies applied can be used to calculate the historical advancement value, potential value in the future and the economic value on tangible goods. Also, it justifies companies to charge consumers the cost arising from using intangible assets (Reilly Schweihs, 2004). Due to the application of methods of measuring intangible assets, it has brought some changes in the way trade is carried out. At the moment, intangible assets are recognized from a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. Nevertheless, in the recent times, the viewpoint has changed from a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint to that of a market accomplice.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the consumer will have to appreciate the cost arising from using various goods and services. This is irrespective of whether the consumer intends to use the intangible asset or not. It also means that consumers will have to pay for intangible assets which were once regarded as of having no value. In the end, consumers will be able to see charges of intangible assets in their pay slips and receipts (King Wiley, 2006). Even though this paper has been written by an accountant to another accountant, it is important that the general public reads it. By reading this paper, they will come to understand some of the charges that are imposed on them when they buy various goods and services. References King, A., Wiley, J. ( 2006). Fair Value for Financial Reporting: Meeting the New FASB Requirements. New Jersey: McG raw-Hill. Reilly, R., Schweihs, R. (2004). Handbook of Business Valuation and Intellectual Property Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill. This essay on Intangible Assets in Finances was written and submitted by user Ronin Hatfield to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
April Raintree Essay Essay Example April Raintree Essay Essay April Raintree Essay Essay Chapter 1 1. How is the setting depicted in Chapter One What was your reaction In April Raintree, we first get introduced by the words of AprilÃ¢â¬ a 24 year old girl who is fairly content with her family, considering the different types of skin color and mixed blood. She begins to explain her unique family, and the approach towards where they live is suggested as well. Norway House, a small northern Manitoba town is a fairly low maintenance place, where you will find families living in poverty quite common. AprilÃ¢â ¢s family move around a lot, from place to place. She claims that she can only remember one streetÃ¢â¬ and thatÃ¢â ¢s Jarvis Avenue. This was a bit surprising to me at first, since the story takes place close to where I live as well. ItÃ¢â ¢s also exciting, since the words of April are something that I can relate to, because of how she lives in Manitoba. AprilÃ¢â ¢s family continues to struggle with problems regarding money and relationship issues. Since their house is small, it is hard for her to relax or find the time to talk to their family, which consists of a mother who is usually quiet and calm, and a clumsy father who can get loud at times. Chapter 2 2. Quote and discuss three significant events in this chapter. As the story progresses, there are a lot of important events that the reader will take notice. For example, we get introduced to the scenario of Cheryl and AprilÃ¢â ¢s separation between each other and being placed into different foster homes.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Impact of Wheeled Vehicles on Human History The inventions of the wheel and wheeled vehiclesÃ¢â¬âwagons or carts which are supported and moved around by round wheelsÃ¢â¬âhad a profound effect on human economy and society. As a way to efficiently carry goods for long distances, wheeled vehicles allowed for the broadening of trade networks. With access to a wider market, craftspeople could more easily specialize, and communities could expand if there was no need to live close to food production areas. In a very real sense, wheeled vehicles facilitated periodic farmers markets. Not all changes brought by wheeled vehicles were good ones, however: With the wheel, imperialist elites were able to expand their range of control, and wars could be waged farther afield. Key Takeaways: Invention of the Wheel The earliest evidence for wheel use is that of drawings on clay tablets, found nearly simultaneously throughout the Mediterranean region about 3500 BCE.Ã Parallel innovations dated about the same time as the wheeled vehicle are the domestication of the horse and prepared trackways.Ã Wheeled vehicles are helpful, but not necessary, for the introduction of extensive trade networks and markets, craft specialists, imperialism, and the growth of settlements in different complex societies.Ã Parallel Innovations It wasnt simply the invention of wheels alone that created these changes. Wheels are most useful in combination with suitable draft animals such as horses and oxen, as well as prepared roadways. The earliest planked roadway we know of, Plumstead in the United Kingdom, dates to about the same time as the wheel, 5,700 years ago. Cattle were domesticated about 10,000 years ago and horses probably about 5,500 years ago. Wheeled vehicles were in use across Europe by the third millennium BCE, as evidenced by the discovery of clay models of high sided four-wheeled carts throughout the Danube and Hungarian plains, such as that from the site of Szigetszentmarton in Hungary. More than 20 wooden wheels dated to the late and final Neolithic have been discovered in different wetland contexts across central Europe, between about 3300Ã¢â¬â2800 BCE. Wheels were invented in the Americas, too, but because draft animals were not available, wheeled vehicles were not an American innovation. Trade flourished in the Americas, as did craft specialization, imperialism and wars, road construction, and the expansion of settlements, all without wheeled vehicles: but theres no doubt that having the wheel did drive (pardon the pun) many social and economic changes in Europe and Asia. Earliest Evidence The earliest evidence for wheeled vehicles appears simultaneously in Southwest Asia and Northern Europe, about 3500 BCE. In Mesopotamia, that evidence is from images, pictographs representing four-wheeled wagons found inscribed on clay tablets dated to the late Uruk period of Mesopotamia. Models of solid wheels, carved from limestone or modeled in clay, have been found in Syria and Turkey, at sites dated approximately a century or two later. Although long-standing tradition credits the southern Mesopotamian civilization with the invention of wheeled vehicles, today scholars are less certain, as there appears to be a nearly simultaneous record of use throughout the Mediterranean basin. Scholars are divided as to whether this is the result of the rapid dissemination of a single invention or multiple independent innovations. In technological terms, the earliest wheeled vehicles appear to have been four-wheeled, as determined from models identified at Uruk (Iraq) and Bronocice (Poland). A two-wheeled cart is illustrated at the end of the fourth millennium BCE, at Lohne-Engelshecke, Germany (~3402Ã¢â¬â2800 cal BCE (calendar years BCE). The earliest wheels were single piece discs, with a cross-section roughly approximating the spindle whorl- that is, thicker in the middle and thinning to the edges. In Switzerland and southwestern Germany, the earliest wheels were fixed to a rotating axle through a square mortise, so that the wheels turned together with the axle. Elsewhere in Europe and the Near East, the axle was fixed and straight, and the wheels turned independently. When wheels turn freely from the axle, a drayman can turn the cart without having to drag the outside wheel. Wheel Ruts and Pictographs The oldest known evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe comes from the Flintbek site, a Funnel Beaker culture near Kiel, Germany, dated to 3420Ã¢â¬â3385 cal BCE. A series of parallel cart tracks was identified beneath the northwestern half of the long barrow at Flintbek, measuring just over 65 ft (20 m) long and consisting of two parallel sets of wheel ruts, up to two ft (60 cm) wide. Each single wheel rut was 2Ã¢â¬â2.5 in (5Ã¢â¬â6 cm) wide, and the gauge of the wagons has been estimated at 3.5Ã¢â¬â4 ft (1.1Ã¢â¬â1.2 m) wide. On the islands of Malta and Gozo, a number of cart ruts have been found which may or may not be associated with the construction of the Neolithic temples there. At Bronocice in Poland, a Funnel Beaker site located 28 mi (45 km) northeast of KrakÃ ³w, a ceramic vessel (a beaker) was painted with several, repeated images of a schematic of a four-wheel wagon and yoke, as part of the design. The beaker is associated with cattle bone dated to 3631Ã¢â¬â3380 cal BCE. Other pictographs are known from Switzerland, Germany, and Italy; two wagon pictographs are also known from the Eanna precinct, level 4A at Uruk, dated to 2815/-85 BCE (4765/-85 BP [5520 cal BP]), a third is from Tell Uqair: both these sites are in what is today Iraq. Reliable dates indicate that two- and four-wheeled vehicles were known from the mid-fourth millennium BCE throughout most of Europe. Single wheels made of wood have been identified from Denmark and Slovenia. Models of Wheeled Wagons While miniature models of wagons are useful to the archaeologist, because they are explicit, information-bearing artifacts, they must also have had some specific meaning and significance in the various regions where they were used. Models are known from Mesopotamia, Greece, Italy, the Carpathian basin, the Pontic region in Greece, India, and China. Complete life-sized vehicles are also known from Holland, Germany, and Switzerland, occasionally used as funeral objects. A wheel model carved out of chalk was recovered from the late Uruk site of Jebel Aruda in Syria. This asymmetrical disk measures 3 in (8 cm) in diameter and 1 in (3 cm) thick, and wheelÃ as hubs on both sides. A second wheel model was discovered at the Arslantepe site in Turkey. This disc made of clay measured 3 in (7.5 cm) in diameter and has a central hole where presumably the axle would have gone. This site also includes local wheel-thrown imitations of the simplified form of late Uruk pottery. One recently reported miniature model comes from the site of Nemesndudvar, an early Bronze Age through Late Medieval site located near the town of Nemesndudvar, County Bcs-Kiskun, Hungary. The model was discovered along with various pottery fragments and animal bones in a part of the settlement dated to the early Bronze Age. The model is 10.4 in (26.3 cm) long, 5.8 in (14.9 cm) wide, and has a height of 2.5 in (8.8 cm). Wheels and axles for the model were not recovered, but the round feet were perforated as if they had existed at one time. The model is made out of clay tempered with crushed ceramics and fired to brownish gray color. The bed of the wagon is rectangular, with straight-sided short ends, and curved edges on the long side. The feet are cylindrical; the entire piece is decorated in zoned, parallel chevrons and oblique lines. Ulan IV, Burial 15, Kurgan 4 In 2014, archaeologist Natalia Shishlina and colleagues reported the recovery of a dismantled four-wheeled full-sized wagon, direct-dated to between 2398Ã¢â¬â2141 cal BCE. This Early Bronze Age Steppe Society (specifically East Manych Catacomb culture) site in Russia contained the interment of an elderly man, whose grave goods also included a bronze knife and rod, and a turnip-shaped pot. The rectangular wagon frame measured 5.4x2.3 ft (1.65x0.7 m) and the wheels, supported by horizontal axles, were 1.6 ft (.48 m) in diameter. Side panels were constructed of horizontally placed planks; and the interior was probably covered with reed, felt, or woolen mat. Curiously, the different parts of the wagon were made of a variety of wood, including elm, ash, maple, and oak. Sources Bakker, Jan Albert, et al. The Earliest Evidence of Wheeled Vehicles in Europe and the near East. Antiquity 73.282 (1999): 778Ã¢â¬â90. Print.Bondr, Mria, and GyÃ ¶rgy V. SzÃ ©kely. A New Early Bronze Age Wagon Model from the Carpathian Basin. World Archaeology 43.4 (2011): 538Ã¢â¬â53. Print.Bulliet, Richard W. The Wheel- Inventions Reinventions. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016. Print.Klimscha, Florian. Cultural Diversity in Prehistoric Western Eurasia: How Were Innovations Diffused and Re-Invented in Ancient Times? Claroscuro 16.16 (2018): 1-30. Print.Mischka, Doris. The Neolithic Burial Sequence at Flintbek La 3, North Germany, and Its Cart Tracks: A Precise Chronology. Antiquity 85.329 (2011): 742Ã¢â¬â58. Print.Sax, Margaret, Nigel D. Meeks, and Dominique Collon. The Introduction of the Lapidary Engraving Wheel in Mesopotamia. Antiquity 74.284 (2015): 380Ã¢â¬â87. Print.Schier, Wolfram. Central and Eastern Europe. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe. Eds . Fowler, Chris, Jan Harding and Daniela Hofmann. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Print. Shishlina, N.I., D. S. Kovalev, and E. R. Ibragimova. Catacomb Culture Wagons of the Eurasian Steppes. Antiquity 88.340 (2014): 378Ã¢â¬â94. Print.Vandkilde, Helle. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural Warriorhood and a Carpathian Crossroad in the Sixteenth Century BC. European Journal of Archaeology 17.4 (2014): 602Ã¢â¬â33. Print.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Effects of Rising Sea Levels on Costal Populations at the End of the last Ice Age - Term Paper Example As a result, there is a great chasm of study and information regarding the events of the last ice age and its impact on the environment together with the current condition of these places. It is imperative to examine the occurrence of the last age and expose the magnitude of harm and the damage done on the environment. The study will particularly focus on the coastal populations and how they were affected by the events of the last age. Finally, archeological inquiry should be performed to explore the submerged areas. ... The expansive arena endeavors to comprehend whether the environment of past people was a significant parameter in achieving cultural change or just a simple dynamic for development (Anderson, 2010). Through the reconstruction on ancient environments, archeologists obtain understanding regarding the adaptations of past civilizations that were imperative for living as well as the distinct environmental changes that were pivotal in their disappearance. Similarly, environmental archeology can be described as a sub discipline of archaeology that primarily concentrates on the effects of a particular culture on the atmosphere. Environmental archeology, therefore, involves the comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between culture and environment to determine if the environment were incidental in cultural change (or just a common feature in the development of the relevant culture). The last ice age was of great implication on the environment and it immensely affected the coastal popula tion in a significant way (Farley, 2002). However, the unavailability of research information on the relevant events of the ice age and its implications on the environment and people has made it difficult to comprehend the exact effect of the occurrence. The study will endeavor to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the events of the last ice age; more so the melting of the polar caps its effect on the human population as well as perform an archeological examination of the current state of the submerged areas. Research Question This study will endeavor to answer the developed research question in a practical and theoretical way; that will provide more insight on the relevance of